Explain different classes of Cloud Storage ?

Google Cloud Storage is an enterprise public cloud storage platform that can house large unstructured data sets. Companies can purchase the storage for primary or infrequently accessed data.

Google Cloud Storage is a service within the Google Cloud Platform. It provides unified object storage for live or archived data. Objects stored in Google Cloud Storage are grouped into buckets. Buckets are containers within the cloud that can be individually assigned to storage classes.

Google Cloud Storage offers multiple storage classes, including Standard Storage,Multi-Regional, Regional, Nearline and Coldline.

When you create a bucket, you can specify a default storage class for the bucket. When you add objects to the bucket, they inherit this storage class unless explicitly set otherwise. If you don't specify a default storage class when you create a bucket, that bucket's default storage class is set to Standard Storage. Changing the default storage class of a bucket does not affect any of the objects that already exist in the bucket.

Available storage classes

Storage ClassName for APIs and gsutilMinimum storage durationTypical monthly availability1
Standard StorageSTANDARDNone>99.99% in multi-regions and dual-regions99.99% in regions
Nearline StorageNEARLINE30 days99.95% in multi-regions and dual-regions99.9% in regions
Coldline StorageCOLDLINE90 days99.95% in multi-regions and dual-regions99.9% in regions
Archive StorageARCHIVE365 days99.95% in multi-regions and dual-regions99.9% in regions

The following aspects apply to all storage classes:

  • Unlimited storage with no minimum object size.
  • Worldwide accessibility and worldwide storage locations.
  • Low latency (time to first byte typically tens of milliseconds).
  • High durability (99.999999999% annual durability).
  • Geo-redundancy if the data is stored in a multi-region or dual-region.
  • A uniform experience with Cloud Storage features, security, tools, and APIs.

Standard Storage

Standard Storage is best for data that is frequently accessed ("hot" data) and/or stored for only brief periods of time.

When used in a region, Standard Storage is appropriate for storing data in the same location as Google Kubernetes Engine clusters or Compute Engine instances that use the data. Co-locating your resources maximizes the performance for data-intensive computations and can reduce network charges.

When used in a dual-region, you still get optimized performance when accessing Google Cloud products that are located in one of the associated regions, but you also get the improved availability that comes from storing data in geographically separate locations.

When used in a multi-region, Standard Storage is appropriate for storing data that is accessed around the world, such as serving website content, streaming videos, executing interactive workloads, or serving data supporting mobile and gaming applications.

Nearline Storage

Nearline Storage is a low-cost, highly durable storage service for storing infrequently accessed data. Nearline Storage is a better choice than Standard Storage in scenarios where slightly lower availability, a 30-day minimum storage duration, and costs for data access are acceptable trade-offs for lowered at-rest storage costs.

Nearline Storage is ideal for data you plan to read or modify on average once per month or less. For example, if you want to continuously add files to Cloud Storage and plan to access those files once a month for analysis, Nearline Storage is a great choice.

Nearline Storage is also appropriate for data backup, long-tail multimedia content, and data archiving. Note, however, that for data accessed less frequently than once a quarter, Coldline Storage or Archive Storage are more cost-effective, as they offer lower storage costs.

Coldline Storage

Coldline Storage is a very-low-cost, highly durable storage service for storing infrequently accessed data. Coldline Storage is a better choice than Standard Storage or Nearline Storage in scenarios where slightly lower availability, a 90-day minimum storage duration, and higher costs for data access are acceptable trade-offs for lowered at-rest storage costs.

Coldline Storage is ideal for data you plan to read or modify at most once a quarter. Note, however, that for data being kept entirely for backup or archiving purposes, Archive Storage is more cost-effective, as it offers the lowest storage costs.

Archive Storage

Archive Storage is the lowest-cost, highly durable storage service for data archiving, online backup, and disaster recovery. Unlike the "coldest" storage services offered by other Cloud providers, your data is available within milliseconds, not hours or days.

Unlike other Cloud Storage storage classes, Archive Storage has no availability SLA, though the typical availability is comparable to Nearline Storage and Coldline Storage. Archive Storage also has higher costs for data access and operations, as well as a 365-day minimum storage duration. Archive Storage is the best choice for data that you plan to access less than once a year. For example:

  • Cold data storage - Archived data, such as data stored for legal or regulatory reasons, can be stored at low cost as Archive Storage, yet still be available if you need it.
  • Disaster recovery - In the event of a disaster recovery event, recovery time is key. Cloud Storage provides low latency access to data stored as Archive Storage.

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